Propaganda on demand: Russia’s media environment during the war in Ukraine




propaganda, digital media, Russia-Ukaine war, Russian media


In this essay, I explore the nature of propaganda in a hybrid media environment through the example of Russian propaganda during the ongoing war in Ukraine. I start by briefly overviewing the Russian media system’s development, focusing on the roots of cynical attitude toward journalism in the society. After analyzing propaganda strategies, I suggest the propaganda on demand concept, which describes the manipulation of public opinion by targeting different social milieus with specifically tailored narratives. In Russia’s case, this approach is based on inconsistency and eclecticism. However, it seems well suited to the very logic of the digital realm, which helps the state deliver often-contradicting narratives to different target groups.

Author Biography

Anna Litvinenko, Freie Universitaet Berlin

Anna Litvinenko (PhD) is a researcher in the Digitalization and Participation Department at the Institute for Media and Communication Studies, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. After receiving her PhD in 2007 and until 2015, she was associate professor in the Department of International Journalism at St. Petersburg University, Russia. Her research focuses on political communication in the Post-Soviet space, comparative media studies, and the role of social media in various socio‐political contexts.




How to Cite

Litvinenko, A. (2023). Propaganda on demand: Russia’s media environment during the war in Ukraine. Global Media Journal - German Edition, 12(2).